This study describes the topography, borders and divisions of the globus pallidus in the Brazilian short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and distribution of the three calcium binding proteins, parvalbumin (PV), calbindin D-28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) in that nucleus. The globus pallidus of the opossum consists of medial and lateral parts that are visible with Nissl or Timm's staining and also in PV and CR immunostained sections. Neurons of the globus pallidus expressing these proteins were classified into three types on the basis of size and shape of their soma and dendritic tree. Type 1 neurons had medium-sized fusiform soma with dendrites sprouting from the opposite poles. Neurons of the type 2 had medium-to-large, multipolar soma with scarce, thin dendrites. Cell bodies of type 3 neurons were small and either ovoid or round. Immunostaining showed that the most numerous were neurons expressing PV that belonged to all three types. Density of the PV-immunopositive fibers and puncta correlated with the density of the PV-labeled neurons. Labeling for CB resulted mainly in the light staining of neuropil in both parts of the nucleus, while the CB-expressing cells (mainly of the type 2) were scarce and placed only along the border of the globus pallidus and putamen. Staining for calretinin resulted in labeling almost exclusively the immunoreactive puncta and fibers that were distributed with medium-to-high density throughout the nucleus. Close to the border of globus pallidus with the putamen these fibers (probably dendrites) were long, thin and varicous, while more medially bundles of thick, short and smooth fibers predominated. Single CR-ir neurons (all of the type 3) were scattered through the globus pallidus. Colocalization of two calcium binding proteins in one neuron was. never observed. The CB-ir puncta (probably terminals of axons projecting to the nucleus) frequently formed basket-like structures around the PV-ir neurons. Therefore, the globus pallidus in the opossum, much as that in the rat, consists of a heterogeneous population of neurons, probably playing diversified functions.