Karyotypes of the aoudad and sheep were compared on the basis of G-banded chromosomes at the 450 band level. The common G-banded karyotype showed the homology of all aoudad chromosomes (2n=58) with sheep chromosomes (2n=54) or sheep chromosome arms. The results of cytogenetic investigations suggest that in this case karyotype evolution has led to reduction in chromosome number as a result of centric fusions. The formation of the first metacentric chromosome occurred in the aoudad. The homology of the G-banding pattern in sheep and aoudad suggests the conservation in linear arrangement of genetic material. Thus comparative cytogenetics can be a useful tool in gene mapping.