MilkProtChip is an oligonucleotide microarray based on the arrayed primer extension (APEX) technique, allowing genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of interest for bovine milk protein biosynthesis. APEX consists of a sequencing reaction primed by an oligonucleotide anchored with its 5'end to a glass slide and terminating one nucleotide before the polymorphic site. The extension with one fluorescently labeled dideoxy nucleotide complementary to the template reveals the polymorphism. A total of 75 SNPs were selected among those associated directly or potentially with milk protein content. Among the 75 SNPs, 4 did not produce a positive signal. Most of the remaining SNPs produced a signal for both strands, except for 4 (one strand). In the validation step, 12 Polish Holstein bulls, 1 Polish Red bull, 1 bison (Bison bonasus), 11 Jersey cows and 25 Polish Holstein cows were screened to validate SNPs. Among the 71 selected SNPs ? 26 were found monoallelic, the rest showing at least two genotypes for the entire population under study. All the animals were earlier genotyped for 2?5 SNPs by PCR-RFLP and PCR sequencing and all showed complete concordance with APEX genotyping. APEX reactions showed relatively high signal frequencies: more than 0.9, 0.9?0.8 and below 0.8, for 65, 4 and 2 DNA samples, respectively. The primary application of the MilkProtChip is the simultaneous genotyping of dozens of SNPs to reveal and clarify the genetic background of milk protein biosynthesis. The chip may possibly be used for dairy cattle identification and paternity analysis, evolutionary studies, the evaluation of genetic distances between wild and domestic cattle breeds and the domestication history of bovine species.