Karyotypes of two bark-lice species Amphipsocus japonicus End. and Dasypsocus japonicus End. (Amphipsocidae, Psocomorpha, Psocoptera) were studied for the first time. D. japonicus displayed 2n=16 (14+XX/X0). The XX/X0 sex chromosome system observed in this species is characteristic of the order Psocoptera. A. japonicus showed 2n=16 (14+neo-XY). This is the first observation of the neo-XY sex determination system in Psocoptera. In this species a large amount of constitutive heterochromatin was found in the original X-part of the neo-X chromosome.