Recently, several papers regarding genes essential for somatic embryogenesis have been published. The most important genes playing a key role in both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis are: SERK, LEC, and BBM. The majority of them are regulatory genes coding transcriptional factors. It was proved that the highest transcript accumulation of AGL15, BBM, SERK genes is characteristic for early stages of embryogenesis. The other genes, e.g. LEC1, L1L, LEC2, FUS3, PEI1 are preferentially expressed in later stages. Recently, NiR gene coding ferredoxin ? nitrite reductase, isolated from QTL region has been proved to play a key role in regeneration ability of rice. Although many investigations have been performed up to date, the molecular mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis is still far from understanding.