Earthworm immune responses
Languages of publication
The knowledge of the immunity in annelids started with the use of earthworms as biomarkers indicating changes caused by environmental pollution. Defence strategies effectively protect earthworms against bacterial infections and parasitic invasion. A natural immunity formed by anatomical and chemical protective barriers prevents damage of the underlying tissues, body fluid losses, and microbial infections of the body cavity. The internal defence mechanisms of annelids involve phagocytosis, nodule formation and encapsulation, blood coagulation and wound repair, and antibacterial immune proteins. The antibacterial activity of coelomic fluid associated with lysozyme-like substances and inducible humoral molecules support haemocytic reactions in the annelid defence system.
Publication order reference
J.Jarosz, Department of Insect Pathology, Marie Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland