Genetically modified microorganisms (GMM) are widely applied in research, medicine, pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as in agriculture and environment protection. The assessment of actual risk to human health and to environment related to GMM application is often difficult, because these is unsufficient experience in the application of GMM in areas other than research. That is why European Union, as well as Poland, have undertaken several activities serving to prevent any harm to human health and/or to environment, which might result from utilization of genetic engineering. These activities are performed on the level of legislation and on the level of research programs, aiming at the establishment of effective methods of GMM containment and control. Polish law on Genetically Modified Organisms from 22 June 2001 builds the safety system in Poland in accordance with EU Directives. Additional legislative documents, supporting such system are European Standards which describe in detail particular issues connected to biosafety in laboratories, industry and environment. European standards are adopted to Polish standardization by Polish Committee for Standardization.