Chromosome banding in Cacopsylla mali (Schmidberger) and C. sorbi (Linnaeus) (Homoptera, Psyllidae) with polymorphic sex chromosomes
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C-banding and Ag staining were applied to Cacopsylla sorbi and C. mali. The aim was to discover some additional cytological markers to follow the pathways of the sex determination system transformation in the evolution of the species. Of three karyotype patterns so far described in the literature for these species ? a type A (XO), B (neoXY) and C (neoX1X2Y), only the last two types (B and C) were found. All 6 studied Cacopsylla sorbi from Finland had a karyotype of type B (2n=20+XY), while C. mali had both types. Type B (2n=22+XY) was observed in 31 males, whereas type C (2n=20+neoX1X2Y) in the remaining four. The karyotype of C. sorbi was found to be characterized by a very small amount of C-positive material, localized in a telomere of the Y chromosome. The karyotype of C. mali was also characterized by a very small amount of C-banded material. Both the sex chromosomes and the autosomes displayed a marked polymorphism of C-positive bands within different individuals and even the same individual. In both species the nucleolus was located in the telomere of a middle sized autosomal till diplotene inclusive. The C-banding and Ag staining in the studied Cacopsylla species did not provide any additional cytological markers for an understanding of the pathways of sex determination system transformation in the evolution of the species.
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A. Maryanska-Nadachowska, Department of Experimental Zoology, Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow, Poland