As it was shown in numerous works concerning various plant species tissue culture derived plants may serve as potential variability resources for breeding. This subject was also investigated in rye. However, the number of publications is relatively low. A somaclonal variation in rye was investigated on different levels as molecular one, cytological or morphological. Based on these searches, several general conclusions can be drawn: (1) the frequency of somaclonal changes in rye is high, which can be connected with the presence of genome region, especially susceptible for tissue culture conditions, (2) the range and spectrum of somaclonal changes depend on donor plant genotype, (3) the majority of somaclonal changes has an negative character, e.g. reduction of plant viability, fertility or yield quality influence negatively plant quality, (4) some somaclonal changes can be useful for rye breeding.