The mammalian immune response to Salmonella has long been a subject of scientific study. Indeed, many of the general aspects of bacterial pathogenesis and host immune defense have been well described. However, a lack of clarity remains concerning important aspects of the host immune response to Salmonella, particularly with regard to the induction of an immune response in the intestinal mucosa. A major limitation has been the general lack of knowledge about specific antigenic targets that are recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune response in the intestine. Progress towards the identification of these targets is critical for the development of a detailed model of immunity to Salmonella and will lead to a better understanding of mucosal immune responses to other intracellular pathogens.