Jasmonic acid (JA), methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) and their related compounds which are designated as jasmonates, are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and show various important biological activities in the regulation of plant growth and development, resulting in a consideration that they are putative new plant hormones. Endogenous levels of jasmonates, mainly JA, increase rapidly and transiently in plants or their organs under both abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Jasmonates consist of an integral part of the signal transduction chain between stress signal(s) and stress response(s). In this article, we focused on and reviewed the role of jasmonates in control of differentiation processes in tissue cultures, regeneration and micropropagation, somatic embryo formation, tuber initiation and formation. The involvement of jasmonates in tuberization, tuberous root formation and bulb formation was inferred from their ability to induce the processes in vitro, and from changes in the levels of endogenous jasmonates during the growth of the plants which can account for the initiation of tuberization. The tuberization and the expansion of cells induced by jasmonates always involve the reorientation of cortical microtubules. Differential effect of jasmonic acid on cell cycle progression is also presented. It is still an open question about interactions between jasmonates and other hormones (auxin, ethylene, cytokinins, abscisic acid) in the regulation of meristem activities, cell cycle and other physiological processes.