Production and characterization of amphiploids of Aegilops kotschyi and Ae. biuncialis with Secale cereale, and of backcross hybrids of Ae. biuncialis ? S. cereale amphiploids with 2x and 4x S. cereale
Amphiploids (2n = 6x = 42) of Ae. kotschyi and Ae. biuncialis with self-compatible S. cereale were produced from F1 sterile hybrids (2n = 3x = 21) through colchicine treatment and callus tissue regeneration. The amphiploids resembled the F1 plants in overall morphology, but were larger in all respects and self-fertile. The spikelets consisted mostly of 3 well-developed florets. Selfed seeds were obtained from some colchicine-doubled sectors and callus regenerates. Most of the produced seeds were well developed. Backcrosses between amphiploids and rye (2x and 4x) resulted in obtaining (Ae. biuncialis ? S. cereale amphiploid) ? S. cereale hybrids via embryo culture. The BC1 plants (2n = 4x = 28 and 2n = 5x = 35, respectively) were phenotypically intermediate between the parents and vigorous in vegetative growth. Some seeds were obtained only from the 35-chromosome BC1 hybrids.