Postnatal neovascularization has been previously considered synonymous with angiogenesis but it was found that circulating endothelial progenitor cells may home into sites of neovascularization and their differentiation into endothelial cells is consistent with vasculogenesis. In this study, we investigated neovascularization of the adult rat?s cerebral cortex after surgical brain injury by electron microscopic ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies. We found places with disrupted brain parenchyma. The blood vessels showed an incomplete endothelial lining. In the brain parenchyma, we observed fibrin likely derived from disrupted blood vessels. In the plasma there were cell aggregates characterized by endothelial-like features with fibrils in the cytoplasm, untypical for endothelial cells. These endothelial-like cells participated in the process of new vessel formation. We used the anti-alphaV beta3 integrin antibody to visualize the different morphogenic stages of newly formed blood vessels. We demonstrated the relationship between alphaV beta3 integrin localization and different stages of new vessel formation. Our data suggest that growth and development of new blood vessels due to neovascularization following trauma of the adult rat brain are not restricted to angiogenesis but encompass vasculogenesis as well.