Nutritional properties of Arthrospira have been known for hundred years. It was consumed by the Aztecs and it is still an important food source for the Kanembu tribe in Chad. The biomass of Arthrospira is the source of eight essential and twelve non-essential amino acids, as well as lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and carotenoids. It has immunomodulative, antioxidant, antiviral and anticancerogenic properties. Arthrospira is also used for heavy metal and inorganic nutrients removal from wastewater. Arthrospira PCC 8005 strain was chosen to be a part of MELISSA system (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative), where it will be used to produce oxygen and as food for astronauts.