In vitro germination and conversion of somatic embryos
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Somatic embryogenesis (SE), resembling zygotic embryogenesis, is a very efficient and fast method of vegetative plant propagation. Somatic embryos, the final products of this process, are immediately or after drying and/ or encapsulation used as artificial seeds. SE efficiency is not only dependent on the quantity, but also on quality of somatic embryos. Although SE has been recorded for species across many genera and from a variety of plant tissues, regeneration of plants from somatic embryos is often a significant problem for some plant species. Many efforts have been made to obtain higher levels of germination and conversion of somatic embryos to plants. This review will focus on the present knowledge about enhancing the vigor of somatic embryos with special attention paid to the effect of plant hormones (gibberellins, ethylene, abscisic acid), germination and conversion of somatic embryos and their influence on the storage reserves content (starch, oligosaccharides), their hydrolytic products (raffinose, sucrose, glucose), and on the activity of hydrolytic enzymes (alpha-amylase).
Publication order reference
Ewa Kepczynska, Zaklad Biotechnologii Roslin, Katedra Fizjologii i Biotechnologii Roslin, Uniwersytet Szczecinski, ul. Waska 13, 71-415 Szczecin, Poland