Until recently protein biosynthesis has been viewed as a process involving only three steps: initiation of translation, elongation of the nascent polypeptide chain and release of the completed unfolded polypeptide. In recent years fourth step in translation has been distinguished ? it is the recycling of the ribosome. In this process posttermination complexes termed post-TC consisting of ribosomes with deacylated tRNA(s) and mRNA are dissociated with the help of ribosome recycling factor (RRF), elongation factor G (EF-G) and initiation factor 3 (IF3) in Procaryotes. The mechanism of this final step in Eucaryotes was unknown for a long time, but the work of Pisarev et al. sheds a light on splitting 80S ribosomes and preparing them for the next cycle of translation.