Cytogenetic or molecular identification of sex chromosomes could help in breeding studies in producing monosex fish stocks, estimating success of androgenesis, gynogenesis, etc. Among fish species sex chromosomes are recognizable in only a few cases. Some populations of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss show morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes. A strain from Rutki, Poland, showed a heteromorphic pair of subtelocentric chromosome: presumably of the XY type in the male and XX in the female. Restriction endonuclease and DAPI banding resulted in a characteristic banding pattern enabling identification of the X chromosome.