Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a generalised disorder of connective tissue characterised by an increased fragility of bones and also manifested in other tissues containing collagen type I, by blue sclera, hearing loss, dentinogenesis imperfecta, hyperextensible joints, hernias and easy bruising. OI is dominantly inherited and results in >90% OI cases, caused by mutations in one of the two genes COL1A1 or COL1A2 coding for type I procollagen. The Lithuanian OI database comprises 147 case records covering the period of 1980 ? 2001. Clinical and genealogical analysis of OI cases/families from Lithuania available for examination revealed 18 familial cases of OI type I and 22 sporadic cases: OI type II (3 cases), OI type III (11 cases) and OI type I (8 cases). As a result of their molecular genetic investigation, 11 mutations were identified in the COL1A1 gene in 13 unrelated patients. Of them, nine mutations (E500X, G481A, c.2046insCTCTCTAG, c.1668delT, c.1667insC, c.4337insC, IVS19+1G > A, IVS20-2A > G, IVS22-1G > T) appeared to be novel, i.e. not yet registered in the Human Type I and Type III Collagen Mutations Database (http://www.le.ac.uk/genetics/collagen).