The effect of packed red blood cell storage on arachidonic acid and advanced glycation end-product formation
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Introduction: The transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is a significant risk to blood recipients. Blood banking procedures permit the storage of PRBCs for up to 42 days. Storage of PRBCs can cause polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) activation and the development of neutrophil-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury. The aim of our study was to determine if PRBC storage has an influence on the formation of arachidonic acid (AA) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Materials and Methods: Twenty units of PRBCs were used to measure AA and AGE levels. The samples were taken on the 0th, 14th, 28th, and 42nd days of PRBC storage. The AA level was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and AGE level by an immunoenzymatic test. Results: During the first 14 days of PRBC storage, the AA level significantly increased and then slowly decreased. The AGE level increased continuously during the whole time of the study. In a model experiment, the AA glycoxidation product trans-2-nonenal (T2N) formed adducts in reaction with hemoglobin which were detectable with the test for AGE. Conclusions: It is highly probable that the observed increase in AGE level is related to the decrease in AA in PRBCs, which can be associated with the formation of toxic aldehydes, especially T2N and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), from AA. Glucose in the PRBCs (preservative solution) can contribute to AGE formation as well. The formation of AGEs, HNE, and T2N in PRBCs, their influence on PMNs in vitro, and confirmation of our assumption need further studies.
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Lidia Lysenko, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Wroclaw University of Medicine, Chalubinskiego 1a, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland