This study aimed to determine the frequency of associated urological abnormalities in children with unilateral renal agenesis (RA) or multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK). In total, 38 children (10 girls, 28 boys) were studied: 21 with RA and 17 with MCDK. In 14 children (37%) anomalies of the urinary tract were suspected prenatally in ultrasound studies. In the remaining 24 children the diagnosis of RA/MCDK was made postnatally: in 13 (34%) in the first 7 days of life, in 11 (29%) at the age of 8 days to 34 months, mean 10.6 ? 8.05 months. Voiding cystourethrography was done in 36 (95%) children, the isotopic 99mTc-EC/DMSA scan of the kidney in 29 (67%), and urography in 8. Urological anomalies were present in 11 (29%) children: in 7 (33%) with RA and in 4 (24%) with MCDK. Vesicoureteral reflux was diagnosed in 8 children: grade II in 4, III in 3, and IV in 1 (in 1 child to duplicated, in 1 to ectopic kidney); ureterovesical junction obstruction in 2 (9.5%); and ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 1 (4.8%). Among them, 2 children demanded surgery on the contralateral urinary tract: pyeloplasty in 1, antireflux procedure in 1; while 9 children were treated conservatively. Compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral kidney was found in 90% of children. Thus due to an increased risk of pathological changes in the single functioning kidney, lifelong nephrological care is recommended in patients with unilateral RA/MCDK.