One hundred wheat lines, derived from monosomic additions of chromosome 1R of rye inbred line R12 (Chinese rye), were detected by PCR amplification using rye-specific primer pairs. Only 5 wheat lines, 1R296, 1R330, 1R314, 1R725, and 1R734, were determined to contain rye chromatin. While 1R296 and 1R330 were highly susceptible to stripe rust and powdery mildew, 1R314, 1R725 and 1R734 were highly resistant to both diseases. Acid-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the ?secalin bands were absent in 1R314, but present in the other 4 wheat lines. Genomic in situ hybridization indicated that 1R296, 1R330, and 1R725 contained translocations involving the whole short arm of chromosome 1R. However, 1R314 and 1R734 contained a pair of wheat chromosomes with small, terminal, rye-derived chromosome segments. The results suggest that the translocation breakpoint of 1RS in 1R314 was located between the Sec-1 locus and the disease-resistance loci, while in line 1R734, the breakpoint was located between the Sec-1 locus and the centromere. Taking account of the improved disease resistance of 1R725, 1R314 and 1R734, the chromosome arm 1RS of R12 may represent new and valuable disease resistance resources for wheat improvement.