Several aspects of cucumber transformation including the ways of transgene introduction, factors influencing the transformation efficiency and the fate of the introduced genes were reviewed. Various transgenes have been introduced into the cucumber genome mostly via the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The frequency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation ranged from 0.8 to 10% and was influenced by the selection agent, the regeneration efficiency, activation of vir genes expression, the explant size, bacteria cell density, the length of exposure and the co-cultivation period. The transgenes were integrated mostly as single copy in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and as multiple copies in direct transformation. Variable levels of the transgene expression were observed. The transmission of the transgenes as well as the transgenic phenotype follow the Mendelian, and rarely non-Mendelian, ratio. The production of marker-free transgenic cucumber and use of an alternative transformation method are recommended.