The recently revised check-list of diatoms found in Germany contains 1437 taxa (1632 taxa have been recorded for Central Europe). Clear correlations with ecological conditions were established for 1000 taxa (70% of 1437). 267 predominantly marine taxa also occur in inland waters; they penetrate progressively into rivers contaminated with industrial waste waters. 61 taxa are aerophilic and 164 eutraphentic, 91 tolerant to all trophic conditions. Very few species in these ecological groupings are endangered. However, at last 417 oligo- or slightly mesotraphentic taxa are included in the 'Red List'. This strongly indicates that conserving oligo- and dystrophic waters as well as lower mesotrophic habitats can best protect species diversity.