The interaction of B-cell malignancies with the host immune system is a dynamic and bilateral process. Certain lymphomas more commonly arise against a background of autoimmunity or chronic infection. Initiation of these tumors is commonly reliant on antigenic stimulation and/or T-cell help. Apart from its tumor-fueling role, the host immune response plays a critical role in cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting. The concept of immunoediting holds that the immune system sculpts the tumor's immunogenicity in a dynamic process that involves three essential phases: elimination, equilibrium, and escape. Data obtained by studying gene-targeted animal and human lymphomas that support the critical role of the immune response in the initiation, progression, and immunoediting of lymphoid malignancies are summarized here. A thorough understanding of this interaction will lead to the identification of more rational treatment targets and improved immunotherapies in B-cell lymphomas.