The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses for selection of the best parents for breeding of hybrid winter triticale. Phenotypic diversity was measured for 8 agronomic traits in 10 parents and 27 F1 hybrids. Genotypic diversity was measured by 91 AFLP markers. Coefficients of correlation of genetic similarity (AFLP-GS) with both Euclidean distances and mean values of the traits were generally not significant. A correction of the preliminary binary matrix into trait-specific derived matrices increased the values of 5 correlation coefficients to a significant level. The correlation of AFLP-GS with mid-parent heterosis of grain weight per plant was low but significant (r = ?0.452). Our study confirms the effectiveness of marker preselection for obtaining AFLP-GS better correlated with heterosis. The use of derived matrices is promising for reducing the number of cross combinations tested for specific combining ability.