Regulation of autoreactive B cells: checkpoints and activation
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It has become clear that the autoreactive B cells are a part of the normal na?ve B cell repertoire in the periphery, despite the fact that they undergo a series of checkpoints, which include receptor editing (revision), clonal deletion, and anergy. However, most of those B cells reactive against self antigen remain functionally na?ve for autoantibody production by differential peripheral checkpoints. Therefore, the presence of autoreactive B cells does not always signify disease. Regulation of their activation and effector functions will determine the ultimate outcome. Although autoreactive B cell tolerance is well maintained in the healthy individual, the existence of pathogenic autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases indicates that these tolerogenic checkpoints are broken. Recent studies have demonstrated that autoreactive B cells are regulated by a composite of factors, such as genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers such as bacterial and viral infections as well as other immune cells. Interestingly, Toll-like receptors, previously considered as pattern-recognition receptors to detect and sense pathogens, may also have a potential to recognize self antigens and regulate autoreactive B cells for activation. Understanding the mechanisms of autoreactive B cell regulation and activation may help in identifying novel targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Publication order reference
Jun Yan, Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Delia D. Baxter Research Building, Room 119A, University of Louisville, 580 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA