In the present study the authors investigated whether androgens could interact with FSH to induce aromatase and androgen receptor expression in porcine granulosa cells. Dissected whole porcine follicles (small, medium, and large) were incubated for 8 hours in M199 medium supplemented with testosterone (10-7 M), FSH (100 ng/ml) or both those hormones. After incubation, the follicles were fixed and immunostained to visualise androgen receptor and aromatase. In cultures of granulosa cells isolated from small and large follicles, oestrogen secretion was measured by appropriate RIA. Incubation of follicles with testosterone and FSH increased aromatase immunoreactivity in preantral and early antral (i.e. small) follicles. The immunostaining for androgen receptor was slightly higher in medium follicles, while such hormonal stimulation had no effect on small and large follicles. Moreover, granulosa cells isolated from small follicles cultured with both testosterone and FSH produced more estradiol than control cultures (40 pg vs. 100 pg/105cells). The level was relatively close to that obtained in the culture of control granulosa cells isolated from large preovulatory follicles (105 pg/105 cells). These results indicate that testosterone acts synergistically with FSH to increase aromatase expression in the small porcine follicles.