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The development of techniques of DNA recombination in vitro is a basis for the discusion of biohazard and biosafety in laboratory experiments, technological processes and for the environment. After twenty years of experience in this field no hazardous incident was published and therefore we claim that genetic engineering is safe.However, there are different degrees of biohazard in biotechnology depending on the biological agents used, and therefore safety precautions for handling them were developed. The majority of microorganisms used in biotechnology, especially for food production, is harmless.For laboratory work with pathogenes or for their technological applications (e.g. in vaccine production) the techniques of containment are developed and introduced into the praxis. In some cases new technologies eliminate the biorisk in vaccine production: safe genetically engineered instead of pathogenes are utilized.It is necessary to state, that the biosafety problem is discussed mainly from the point of view of human needs.However, the most important question is genetic engineering and biotechnology applications for the military sector.
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