Bacteria from Ochrobactrum genus are found in various environments. They were isolated from soil, sewage, plant tissue and human body, where they acted as a human opportunistic pathogens. Ochrobactrum are able to degrade a wide variety of chemical substances, such as atrazine, nicotine, phenol or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and accumulate heavy metals. Many of those substances pose a threat to the environment and to mankind. The representatives of this genus also play an important role in the nitrogen cycle as one of the symbiotic bacteria of legume plants that reduce nitrites to atmospheric nitrogen. There is still little information about the genus Ochrobactrum and this is why it is necessary to focus more attention on it in terms of environmental protection.