Extensive contamination of the environment caused by heavy metals is one of the many consequences of fast industrial development and civilizational progress which started in the previous century and is still underway. Traditional methods of removing heavy metals from the environment are very expensive and invasive, therefore new and cheap methods are needed. High hopes are put on the possibility of using plants in the process called phytoremediation. Some plants have naturally adapted to life on soils with high heavy metal content. The use of modern methods of molecular biology can be very helpful in obtaining transgenic plants that would be able to take up and accumulate high amounts of heavy metals.