On the basis of the literature, the new molecular methods useful in animal breeding and selection are described. DNA restriction fragment lenght polymorphism analysis is a tool in the diagnosis of some genetic diseases (RYR1 in pigs, BLAD and DUMPS in cattle). Microsatellite DNA polymorphism is useful in parentage control, genetic characteristic of populations, as well as in gene mapping and marker assisted selection. Cytogenetic analyses are recently supported by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and primed in situ labelling (PRINS) which make the chromosome aberration diagnosis more precise. One of the expanded method is bio-chip construction for genome analyses.