Artificial seeds for plant propagation
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Artificial seeds consisting of somatic embryos encapsulated with protective coating, have been proposed as a propagation system of plant propagation. Two types of artificial seeds have been developed, hydrated immobilized in hydrogels, and desiccated. The process of somatic embriogenesis runs in some steps. At first, the embryogenic tissue able to grow in suspension culture must be isolated. Subsequently, this tissue should be inducted by some auxins and kinetins introduced to the liquid medium to start the embryogenesis. The development and maturation of embryos carry out in special media. To scale up this process the buble column and air-lift bioreactors are used. The more frequently material to encapsulate the somatic embryos is alginate hydrogel. The main problem in production of good quality artificial seeds is low efficiency of embryos conversion to normal plant in soil.
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