This paper reviews possibility of glutathione synthesis by microorganisms and its role in living organisms. Glutathione as a tripeptyde containing the -SH and gamma-glutamyl bonds appears to be not only an alternative source of cysteine but also participates in various vital physiological processes. This ubiquitous compound is presenthly in use as a medicament or antidote. Therefore, seachring for alternative means of this production besides the known conventional chemical method is important from biotechnological and economical viewpoint. Also, biomass with elevated content of glutathione could be used as dietary supplement to feeds and foods, cellular enrichment, oxidative and reductive processes and so on in vivo.