The simplified AFLP method was developed and evaluated for identification and genetic diversity studies of wheat cultivars. Selective primers exploited in AFLP assay based on a single cutting enzyme PstI (PstIAFLP) generated total of 111 robust fragments, including 67 (60%) monomorphic and 12 (11%) cultivar-specific markers. Average similarity between 15 cultivars was 0.650, and varied from 0.293 (?Hope? vs. ?Aurora?) to 0.865 (?Norman? vs. ?Hornet?). Mean similarities within groups of winter wheat cultivars with and without 1BL/1RS chromosome were 0.713 and 0.685, respectively. A higher variation was found in the group of spring wheats: 0.677. The obtained results confirm the usefulness of the proposed modification of the AFLP technique for diversity studies and identification of common wheat cultivars.