Cyanobacteria (blue ? green algae) are one of the largest group of Gram ? negative, photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are morphologically diverse and highly widespread in salt and sweet water and also in terrestrial habitats. They play a significant role as primary producers in many ecosystems. Some species of Cyanobacteria are capable to grow extensively and formate toxic water blooms which can be dangerous for animal and human health. Certain species of them produce a wide variety of bioactive compounds which can have potential biotechnological cosmetical and pharmaceutical applications. Cyanobacteria have recently been identified as one of the most promising group of organisms from which large number of novel, biochemically active natural compounds can be isolated.