An effective contraceptive is necessary in the countries where limiting population growth has become a public policy imperative. Main antigenic targets for contraceptive vaccine development can be listed as following: 1) sperm antigens; 2) zona pellucida antigens; 3) gonadotrophin-releasing hormone; 4) chorionic gonadotrophin; 5) other protein/peptide hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, luteinizing hormone ? releasing hormone); 6) gonadal steroid hormones. New techniques such as an application of monoclonal antibodies, hybridoma and DNA recombinant technologies became useful in search for contraceptive candidates. Current state of development of contraceptive vaccines based on specific antigenic targets and trials in animal/human models are presented in this article.