Potato has been known in Europe for the past 400 years. Potato breeding began after the global Phytophthora infestans epidemics in 1840 and 1841. The first breeding attempts were to increase the P. infestans resistance in cultivated potato. In the 21st century, new potato cultivars have been evaluated for more than 50 traits, both for disease and pest resistance, and significant tuber traits. Modern potato breeding requires biotechnology. Cell and tissue culture, genetic engineering and DNA-based molecular markers are the most promising areas of molecular biology for potato breeding. However, there are few reports indicating the actual use of biotechnology in potato breeding programs. Cisgenesis and DNA markers that reside within resistance genes or physically close to them and identified in a fully automated system are a chance for the progress in the future.