Somaclonal variation in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): frequency, occurrence and inheritance
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Plants were regenerated from immature embryo cultures of 35 winter wheat genotypes. General responses of regenerated plants were investigated and a total of 7142 R2 spike lines from 1593 Rl plants were assessed in the field for somaclonal variants in 1985/86, 1986/87 and 1987/88. Selected variants were studied for their possible genetic inheritance. From regenerated plantlets, 81% survived and 63% produced fertile plants. Forms with reduced plant height, length of spike and other morphological abnormalities were found in this progeny. Populations of Rl plants were highly variable due mainly to the physiological disturbances resulting from the in vitro process. Overall somaclonal variation frequencies were 14.2% per plant basis and 5.3% per R2 spike basis. The variants were similar in the three different R2 generations with predominant variants being negative in plant height, maturity, awns, spike type and plant type. Both uniform R2 variant families and spike lines were found in addition to the segregating variants which constituted the majority. On average, in a variant family or line, 18% and 14% of their component lines and plants were variants, respectively. Inheritability was demonstrated for the uniform variant families and spike lines as well as segregated variants. Of those 134 selections, about 70% were classified as inheritable. Both recessive and dominant gene mutations at one, two or three loci were evident in some variants as suggested by the segregating data.
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X.Y. Cheng, Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Hangzhou, China