The present paper describes parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k and calretinin immunoreactivity in the claustrum and endopiriform nucleus of adult rabbits. Studied neuronal populations are characterized by morphological heterogeneity. Four types were identified in each subpopulation of cells containing calcium binding proteins on the basis of the number of processes and their branching pattern. There were no spatial differences in the distribution of cells containing either parvalbumin or calbindin-D28k in the claustrum and endopiriform nucleus. Well documented presence of the various projective zones in the rabbit claustrum did not reflect the specific distribution of neurons containing calcium binding proteins, except those containing calretinin. Their localization may correspond with the limbic zone. We have found that the rabbit claustrum and endopiriform nucleus have different pattern of parvalbumin and calretinin immunoreactivity. The former was more intense in the claustrum and the distribution of cell types was significantly different from that in the endopiriform nucleus. Calretinin-positive cells were observed in the claustrum, while in the endopiriform nucleus they were scarce. The distribution of neither calbindin-D28k-ir neurons nor fibers allowed differentiation of claustrum and endopiriform nucleus. Significant differences between the claustrum and endopiriform nucleus observed in the rabbit might be related with ontogenetic as well as other (functional) factors.