Potential genotoxicity of Fusarium mycotoxins in Vicia and Pisum cytogenetic tests
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Several fusarial toxins (DAS, DON, FUS-X and MON) were assayed for their genotoxic activity with Vicia faba var. minor and Pisum sativum used as eukaryotic, whole-organism, test systems. Four concentrations: 1, 5, 10 and 20 ?g mL-1 were applied for 24 hours, and three fixing times: 24, 48 and 72 hours after the beginning of the treatment. Nuclei and chromosomes in mitotic cells were stained by the Feulgen method. Generally, fusarial toxins in plant cells produced three types of effects: prevented proliferating cells from entering mitosis, caused mitotic alterations and were cytotoxic. Mitotic alterations included C-mitoses, a higher incidence of metaphases/anaphases, excessive condensation of chromosomes, multipolar spindles, disturbed anatelophases and micronuclei. Both type and range of each effect were related to plant species, toxin concentration and duration of the recovery period. The results obtained from our plant bioassays were compared with those reported from other assay systems.
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D. Packa, Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Production, University of Agriculture and Technology, Pl. Lodzki 3, 10-724 Olsztyn, Poland.