The cytotaxonomic characteristics of species of the genus Glyptotendipes (Chironomidae): G. glaucus Meigen, G. paripes Edwards, and G. barbipes (Staeger) are described. The studied material was collected from a fish pond at Golysz and a sewage retention pond at Chybie in Silesia. All the studied species have the chromosome set 2n=8, but with many specific structural and functional changes. The cytogenetic data of G. glaucus showed that the studied specimens of this species have been produced by the introgressive hybridization of two sibling species: G. glaucus x G. pallens, and subsequent crossing-over in the hybrid chromosome CD. Owing to this process, the band pattern of chromosome arm D coincided with those of G. pallens. New aberrations (homo- and heterozygous deletions in arm G as well as heterozygous inversions in chromosome arm B) were detected in G. glaucus. Specific band sequences were discovered in chromosomes of G. paripes. The band patterns established in chromosomes AB and G of this species were identical with those of Siberian populations. The banding patterns of the polytene chromosomes of G. barbipes do not differ from the standard. However, high frequency of pericentric inversion of chromosome AB was established. Many new puffs were found in the polytene chromosomes of all the studied species. Their nucleolar organizer was very sensitive to environmental changes. In G. glaucus it appeared in three different states: very active, slightly active, and heterozygous state. The organic pollution existing in the sewage retention pond may contribute to possible mutations and chromosomal damage in Glyptotendipes species. Structural and functional rearrangements of the polytene chromosomes of these species mobilized their genomes and provide for survival under polluted conditions.