The grasshopper Podisma sapporensis consists of two main chromosome races in Hokkaido. The western group of populations of P. sapporensis, belonging to the XO race, has a diploid number of chromosomes 2n=23 in the male and 2n=24 in the female (sex determination XO male/XX female). The eastern group of populations of this species, belonging to the XY race, differs from the western one as a result of Robertsonian translocation between the originally acrocentric X chromosome and M5 autosome in homozygous state, having resulted in the forming of chromosome sex determination neo-XY male/neo-XX female (2n=22). These races are geographically isolated by the mountainous system consisting of the Mts Daisetsu and Hidaka range, occupying the central part of the island. The hybrid zones between the races have not so far been discovered. Various levels of polymorphism for the pericentric inversions and C-banding variation exist in different chromosomes throughout populations in both chromosome races. In some solitary populations (the population at the summit of Mt Yotei, populations in the vicinity of Naganuma, Oketo, and Tanno) pericentric inversions are fixed in some pairs of chromosomes, which enables marking of the discrete karyomorphes. In the Mt Daisengen population all chromosomes are two-armed as a result of fixing the pericentric inversions. These facts contradict karyotypical conservatism of the tribe Podismini. The level of diversity of P. sapporensis karyotypes could provide a new perspective on the evolutionary process of different karyotype in Orthoptera. The considerable occurrence of polymorphism in chromosomes suggests that karyotypic diversification is undergoing in P. sapporensis. The authors also proposed that P. sapporensis would be divided into four chromosome subraces in the XO chromosome race and two chromosome subraces in the XY race, on the basis of karyotypic features. These races may have been established by fundamental climatic changes during the glacial epoch.