T cell chemokine receptor expression in human Th1- and Th2-associated diseases
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The interaction between chemokines and their receptors is an important step in the control of leukocyte migration into sites of inflammation. Chemokines also mediate a variety of effects independent of chemotaxis, including induction and enhancement of Th1- and Th2---associated cytokine responses. Recent studies have shown that human Th1 and Th2 clones, activated under polarizing conditions with polyclonal stimuli in vitro, display distinct patterns of chemokine receptor expression: Th1 clones preferentially express CCR5 and CXCR3 while many Th2 clones express CCR4, CCR8 and, to a lesser extent, CCR3. These differential patterns of chemokine receptor expression suggest a mechanism for selective induction of migration and activation of Th1- and Th2-type cells during inflammation and, perhaps, normal immune homoeostasis. Studies have begun to examine T cell chemokine receptor expression in vivo to determine the relevance of these in vitro observations to human Th1 and Th2-associated diseases. In this review, we critically examine recent reports of T cell chemokine receptor expression in human autoimmune disorders (multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis) and atopic disorders (allergic rhinitis and asthma) which are believed to arise from inappropriate Th1- and Th2-dominated responses, respectively.
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J.D. Campbell, Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada