There are an increasing number of models for the study of liver cancer development with such agents as chemicals, hormones, and viruses. This process is almost always a multistep and during the long period of cancer development, discrete cells or cell populations acquire step-by step the various properties that go to make up a cancer. The hepatocarcinogenesis models are useful in identification and analysis of the preneoplastic and neoplastic alterations, as well HCC. This article presents a review of theoretical foundation and mechanisms of various models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis as well contain a short presentation of animals practical in those experiments, principally rats. The remarkable similarities between many models with different carcinogens in animals and humans suggest the importance of such studies in understanding of molecular basis of liver cancer development.