Chicken (Gallus gallus) is one of the most important animal species worldwide. As a significant contributor to food industry, it provides eggs and meat, which are important sources of animal protein in human diet. Moreover, chicken has a unique genomic architecture, which has been investigated for many years. This paper summarizes the most recent achievements in the field of chicken genomics. Among domestic animals chicken was the first to be selected for genome sequencing. Nowadays extensive chicken genetic and genomic resources such as genetic maps (STR, SNP), RH panel, EST, nucleotide sequence, QTLs and genes are known and publicly available. Finally, high-throughput microarrays (60K SNP array and 44K gene expression array) have been designed for the chicken genome as a modern tool applied in genome-wide association studies and functional genomics.