Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, also known as Charcot-Mari-Tooth disease (CMT), belongs to a complex and heterogeneous group of hereditary peripheral nerve diseases. The most common form of this disease is the motor and sensory neuropathy type 1A (CMT1A). The main symptoms of the disease are symmetric paresis, located initially in the distal segments of the limbs, gait and balance problems, bone deformities and altered sensation. The aim of the study is to identify and review literature on maintaining postural control in patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy and to provide information on what causes balance impairment. The literature review was conducted by searching Medline, Embase and Scopus databases. The following keywords were used in the search: ‘hereditary motor sensory neuropathy’, ‘charcot marie tooth’, ‘hereditary neuropathy’, ‘balance’, ‘posture’, ‘balance control’, ‘postural control’, ‘postural organization’, ‘somatosen*’. The authors took into consideration all articles that appeared in the search up to September 2020. Additionally, the bibliography of selected articles was searched. The search identified 310 articles. After the final selection 7 articles were included in the review. The conclusions are: 1. There are very few studies on postural control in patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. 2. Investigators use different methodology to assess postural control, which makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions about the cause of balance impairment. 3. There is a need for a welldesigned study on a larger number of patients divided into groups according to the type of hereditary neuropathy.