Introduction Distal radius fracture (DRF) is the most common injury leading to limitation of daily activities and functional independence. Occupational therapy (OT) through the therapeutic use of everyday activities is to ensure participation in various roles. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of occupational therapy in the treatment of patients after DRF. Material and methods The literature review was conducted as an electronic search in Pubmed and EBSCO. The results of the search were limited to: clinical controlled trials, the terms “occupational therapy and distal radius fracture” or “rehabilitation and distal radius fracture” and publication period between January 2008 and December 2018.. Results Three scientific studies have shown significant benefits of OT for patients undergoing supervised therapy, 5 studies have revealed no significant differences between the various therapeutic programs, and two studies have revealed that home exercise programs are superior than other. Conclusions There is no clear evidence showing the benefits of occupational therapy performed instead of or in addition to other forms of patient rehabilitation after DRF. However, the use of various forms of occupational therapy (advice, consultation, exercise or supervised therapy process) brings significant benefits to patients, who did not receive any form of intervention.