Introduction Surgical treatment and radiotherapy can prolong the life expectancy of women with breast cancer but also might have side effects on heart rate variability. Currently breast cancer treatment has contributed to significant improvements in survival rate, but negative effects on the psycho-emotional state and functionality of the autonomic nervous system of these interventions in women is high. We aimed to investigate the heart rate variability features in breast cancer survivors who have varied attitudes towards the disease. Material and methods Heart rate variability analysis, determination of various attitudes towards the disease, and mathematical statistical methods. The survey of 110 breast cancer survivors was conducted utilizing Type of Attitude Toward The Disease questionnaire. The women were executed radical mastectomy and adjuvant radiation treatment for breast cancer. Patients aged between 56 and 60 years. Results The results of our study showed that patients with a rational type of attitude towards disease had statistically (p<0.05) better parameters of heart rate variability. Values of standard deviation of the N-N interval, root mean square of successive differences, total power, high-frequency range, and stress index were much better in patients with rational type of attitude as compared with the women who had intrapsychic and interpsychic attitudes. Conclusions These data show that identified features of various attitudes towards the disease in breast cancer survivors clarify the necessity for particular attention to their heart rate variability parameters.