The occurrence of problems linked to cognitive-linguistic and auditory processing may lead to serious phonological disorders such as an incorrect use of sounds by a child. Early diagnosis of auditory processing disorders makes it possible to start the therapy quickly and enhances the child’s chances of proper development. In the cerebral cortex, there is a physiological connection between auditory processing and speech production. Auditory processing disorders lead to improper development of speech and language communication. Auditory processing disorders in older children are assessed with the use of behavioural tests such as a binaural integration test, Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW) test, Dichotic Digit Test and Speech-in-noise (SIN) test. The drawbacks of these tests are that they are applied when speech production disorders already occur. They cannot be used in newborns due to the fact that they are incapable of cooperating. The NBAS scale used in physiotherapeutic diagnosis may be employed to assess processing disorders in the youngest children. This procedure is very simple and results provide early information regarding the child’s auditory integration. Foreign research points to a significant correlation between auditory processing disorders and phonological disorders mainly in terms of distinguishing phonemes.