ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTION OF ONONIS SPINOSA LEAF EXTRACT IN MOUSE PAIN MODELS
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Ononis spinosa (spiny restharrow) is a perennial herb that belongs to the Fabaceae family. Among several uses, the aerial parts of O. spinosa are used in traditional medicine for toothache. In this study, analgesic activity of the methanolic extract of leaves was studied. In writhing test, the 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg doses of O. spinosa extract produced 90.1% and 94.5% inhibition of abdominal cramps, respectively compared to 23.6% inhibition produced by 30 mg/kg diclofenac sodium. O. spinosa methanolic extract reduced the time of licking in early and late phases of formalin test. The inhibitory effect of O. spinosa extract was more pronounced in late phase. The lowest dose tested (300 mg/kg) of O. spinosa extract produced 81.0% inhibition compared to 50.5% inhibition in 30 mg/kg diclofenac sodium in the late phase of formalin test. This effect was not abrogated by glibenclamide, naloxone or atropine indicating that the action of O. spinosa in formalin test is not mediated by ATP-sensitive K+ channel, opioid or muscarinic receptors. In tail-flick and hot-plate tests, O. spinosa increased the latency time at 30 min and 150 min. Naloxone antagonized the action of O. spinosa in both tests suggesting an interaction with opioid receptor as a possible mechanism of O. spinosa in thermal pain models at the spinal and supraspinal levels. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolics, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Alkaloids, sterols, and anthraquinone glycosides were absent. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence kaempferol, apigenin and myricetin in the extract.
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